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Lugard also made treaties of protection with two other chiefs, the rulers of the western states of Ankole and Toro. There he was tracked down by a runner sent by the colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlainto offer him his first official government appointment.
His tenure of office also was made more difficult by World War Iwith its interruption of communications, its resultant shortages of staff, and the war with the Germans in the Cameroons along his eastern frontier.
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Because she could not stand the Nigerian climate, Lugard felt obliged to leave Africa and to accept the governorship of Hong Kongwhich he held from to No greater contrast could be imagined than that between the vast untamed expanse of Northern Nigeria and the small island of Hong Kong with its highly civilized Chinese and sophisticated commercial British community. In —06 he had seen no other way to control the vast population in northern Nigeria, whose rulers he had defeated, and he had subsequently been promoted governor-general —19 of a united Nigeria, which was by far the most important British colony in Africa.
Here he found a complex struggle going on among animists, Muslims, Protestants, and Roman Catholics—the latter two groups converted by British and French missionaries who had reached Buganda earlier by a southern route—and the nominal king, or kabaka. Lugard did not attempt a complete fusion of their systems and retained a degree of dualism between south and north.
Print Cite verified Cite. External Websites. In Lugard married Flora Shaw, a beautiful and famous woman, herself a great traveler, an authority upon colonial policy, and a member of the staff of The Times of London. Give Feedback External Websites. History at your fingertips.
Though sometimes misapplied or overprolonged, it helped bridge the gap between tribal systems and the new movements toward democracy and unity. Full Article. But the bushwhacker from Africa achieved a surprising degree of success and, on his own initiativefounded the University of Hong Kong. Frederick Lugard.
Facebook Twitter. Within 18 months—not without a brief use of his one operative Maxim gun—Lugard imposed peace, carried out an immense march to the west, and won a treaty of allegiance from the kabaka. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Hearing that his company meant to abandon Uganda because of mounting expenses, he hurriedly returned to England to fight a successful two-pronged campaign to defend, first, the retention of Uganda in addition to imperial annexation and, second, his own reputation against accusations of harshness and injustice. Nor did he find it easy to extend the principles of indirect rule to the loosely organized societies of the Igbo Ibo and other southeastern tribes. This system, cooperative in spirit and economical in staff and expense, he elaborated on in his detailed political memorandums.
Leaving Mombasa in Augusthe led a caravan for five months along an almost untrodden route of miles 1, km to the advanced kingdom of Buganda.
See all media. This was to become the famous West African Frontier Force. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. His next enterprise was under the imperial British East Africa Companyone of the chartered companies that preceded imperial annexation in Africa.
Lugardborn January 22,Fort St. His name is especially associated with Nigeriawhere he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — He was knighted in and raised to the peerage in Posted to India and swept into the British imperial advance of the s, he served in the Afghan, Suakin Sudanand Burma Myanmar campaigns. In three years, by diplomacy or the swift use of his small force, Lugard established British control, though in hastening to take the major states of Kano and Sokoto he forced the hands of his more cautious home government.
Only two serious local revolts marred the widespread acceptance and cooperation that Lugard obtained. up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Most of this vast region ofsquare milessquare km was still unoccupied and even unexplored by Europeans.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires. In he became Baron Lugard of Abinger and spoke with authority in the House of Lords on colonial subjects. In —95 Lugard accepted another dangerous mission, this time for the Royal Niger Companyto race the French in a treaty-making exploration on the Middle Niger.
Show more Died: April 11, aged 87 England Show more. It was an immense task to unify their administration. Though to modern critics of colonialism there may seem much to criticize in his ideas and actions, there can be no questioning the great range and effectiveness of the three periods of his work: in the opening up of Africa; in its government at a most formative stage in its history; and as elder statesman working during his so-called retirement almost up to his death.
He found the south, especially the sophisticated Africans of Lagos and the southeast, less easy to understand than the northerners, and in he had to deal with a serious outbreak in the important city-state of Abeokuta. He could not, however, resist the great opportunity offered to him in to unite the two parts of Nigeria into one vast state. Additional Info. A very deep devotion and partnership grew up between them.
His policy was to support the native states and chieftainships, their laws and their courts, forbidding slave raiding and cruel punishments and exercising control centrally through the native rulers. It greatly influenced British administration in Africa and beyond. In the south were pagan tribes and in the north, historic Muslim city-states with large walled cities whose emirs raided the tribal territories to the south for slaves. address. An officer with a promising career ahead of him in British India, he experienced a catastrophic love affair with a married woman.
He succeeded in that enterprise in spite of great hardships—including a poisoned arrow in his head. He was to create a British-officered African regiment that he was to employ in a second attempt to fend off the French, who then were competing with the British right across Africa from the Niger to the Nile.
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To the end of his life, deeply saddened by the death of his wife inhe worked almost incessantly in his secluded house on a survey of matters affecting the interests of native races both inside and outside the British Empire. Yet, in the main, Lugard carried through an immense task of unification, which was officially declared on January 1, Historians must judge the event by the decision of the Nigerians to obtain their independence in as a united state and to defend it against the attempted Igbo secession to set up an independent state, Biafra, in the late s.
Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. From the Niger he went, again at some risk to his life, to the semidesert of the Bechuanaland Protectorate for the private British West Charterland Company, which was prospecting for diamonds.
The south and north showed wide contrasts in their original character and in their traditions of British rule. In he retired, but only to a life of unceasing activity in his role as the leading authority on colonial government. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.