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Condom use preferences among latinos in miami-dade: emerging themes concerning men’s and women’s culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviours

The participants were asked for and gave informed consent prior to participating in the study. The overall aim of this study was to explore positive adaptations to living with HIV as a chronic illness. What follows is a rich, qualitative description of the experiences of 24 Puerto Rican heterosexual men as they reconcile their HIV status into their personal and social lives.

In efforts to focus our research on heterosexual men, 7 participants who self-identified as gay during the interview were excluded from the analysis. The names that appear throughout this article are pseudonyms to protect participant identities. After the analysis, selected passages from the interviews were translated into English to be included in the text of this article. This article reports on findings from 24 in-depth interviews conducted during the second phase of research.

By examining how heterosexual men approach dating, marriage, and parenthood following an HIV diagnosis, this article aims to contribute to the scarce literature on the experience of illness of HIV-positive heterosexual men. The data analysis was conducted in three stages. The translations were completed by an independent translator.

Potential participants were informed about the study by program staff and by flyers posted at the agencies. This stage primarily included a quotation frequency analysis, a report of the of instances that any given code was used to determine coding trends. The 1. Often, such disclosures were received with rejection, motivating censorship from seeking romantic relationships.

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Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. More precisely, Miller describes the process in terms of transformation and adaptation, that is, the adjustment involves developing the ability to see life with illness, including the accompanying changes and challenges, as normal.

Interested participants contacted the lead author and were then screened to determine eligibility. Interviews were conducted in the preferred language of the respondent, the majority of which chose Spanish.

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The second step consisted of coding the text for emergent themes following an inductive approach Thomas, to document strategies for adjusting to living long-term with HIV and for coping with the stigmatized notions attached to the illness. Entering the dating world and, particularly, having intimate relationships was reported to be difficult after an HIV diagnosis by some of the participants in the study. First, prior to initiating a systematic data analysis of the transcriptions, a precoding stage was performed.

At this stage, particular attention was directed toward identifying patterns in the data: commonalities, discrepancies, curiosities, metaphors, and selections of words, as well as outlier events and cases. The present article reports on findings from a qualitative research study that examined the social lives of a group of HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men in Boston, Massachusetts. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study de to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston.

Learn More. Memos were then used as codes to link them directly to the text during the coding stage. The participants were asked questions about living with HIV, including their experiences of illness, stigma, and life changes since their diagnosis. In the case of HIV, diagnosis is a life-changing event accompanied with feelings of despair and loss. Fatherhood is important in the lives of HIV-positive men.

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Additionally, individuals had to be able to give informed consent to participate. The patterns and themes observed during this exploratory stage were documented using the Memo function in Atlas. That is, despite the diagnosis and stereotypes of illness, these men exercise agency through everyday practices in normalizing their social lives to redefine what it means to live with HIV.

The experiences shared by the men are organized thematically into three main to describe, in the context of HIV, a dating and sex, b marriage, and c fatherhood.

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Seroconcordant relationships, where both partners are HIV-positive, can offer emotional and health protective benefits, along with eliminating the risks and anxiety associated with disclosure Relf et al. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. One man listed his options to ease the fear of disclosure and prevent exposing others to HIV:. Despite the limitations of convenience sampling Marshall,the study captured variation in the sample in terms of place of birth, mode of HIV transmission, and length of time living with HIV, in addition to other common socioeconomic indicators see Table 1.

The impact of illness on everyday life has been the focus of many studies that examine the adjustments people make when facing an incurable illness Nack, ; Shaul, ; Townsend, ; see also Charmaz, ; Larsen, This body of research demonstrates that people with chronic illness follow an adjustment process that involves strategies Royer, for redefining a sense of normalcy that coincides with the level of functioning determined by the condition.

Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in deing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. Despite challenges, an HIV diagnosis does not preclude dating, marrying, or having a family. The data management, coding, and analysis were done using Atlas. Negative experiences, including stigma, isolation, and rejection, are common among people living with HIV Herek et al. Interviews were semistructured and open-ended to explore key research topics.

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To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted in the United States that examine dating, marriage, and parenthood among Latino HIV-positive heterosexual men as they normalize their lives within the context of HIV. To begin addressing this gap in the literature, qualitative method was used to examine how a group of heterosexual HIV-positive Puerto Rican men engage in dating and approach marriage and family planning. In this regard, research has identified that although advances in medical science can reduce the risk of transmission Cohen et al.

However, while these studies mostly document negative experiences, such as stigma and discrimination, little is known about the social adaptations to living with HIV in everyday life, particularly with regard to dating, marriage, and parenthood.

Dating, marriage, and parenthood for hiv-positive heterosexual puerto rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with hiv

Although a great volume of research has been conducted on relationship choices among men living with HIV, the majority of the work has focused on MSM populations. All the participants agreed to be recorded and each session was transcribed using the original language. All the translations were checked and edited for accuracy by the lead author.

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Participants from the exploratory focus groups Phase 1 were excluded from the in-depth interviews Phase 2. The major objective of the interviews dating to explore how these men live with HIV as a chronic illness and, specifically, to document everyday living with HIV. The interviews included a short questionnaire to collect general demographic information and HIV history. That the illness was like cancer or other illness. The qualitative study consisted of three phases of data collection: Phase 1 exploratory research using focus groups, followed by Phase 2 semi-structured in-depth interviews, and Phase 3 a town-hall meeting format presentation to validate the study findings.

A Certificate of Confidentiality was obtained to ensure maximum protection for study participants. Dating and marriage after an HIV diagnosis is challenging; often, HIV-positive men face guy issues when trying to reengage in sex and meeting life partners. The desire to father children is particularly greater among men without children in comparison with men who had fathered children prior to their diagnosis Chen et al. I cannot take a risk like that.

These studies have identified that men either avoid sex altogether, engage in casual sex-only relationships, or become involved in committed or long-term relationships Relf et al. Our analysis is set within a discussion of the experience of rican framework Pierret, exploring the concept of normalcy to expand work on the incorporation of HIV into everyday life Baumgartner, The research community has posited Miami questions about how people manage life after a diagnosis: how is everyday life informed by the disease, how are individuals shaped by the social and cultural context of the illness, and how do people as new meaning to their lives?

Much of Florida literature on relationships among HIV-positive men, mostly based on studies with men who have sex with men MSMhave noted the difficulties and tension of finding a partner and disclosing the HIV status.

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To maintain the integrity of the data, the interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. This analysis was central to uncovering the themes described in this article. Many of the interviewed men remarked that disclosing HIV status to potential partners was challenging. Given the original language of these interviews and in an effort to maintain accuracy while reporting thesethe quotations were translated without regard to prescriptive rules of English syntax.


Finally, to complement the systematic qualitative data analysis, additional data mining techniques were performed to explore the data for additional patterns and themes. Only two interviews were conducted in English.

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I know people that are healthy and are with others who are HIV, but it is a big risk. You know, perhaps for the fear of being rejected. A total of 31 interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Puerto Rican men during that phase of research.

Specifically, the authors describe the strategies of reconciling living with HIV into everyday life by examining the personal lives of this group of men. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only.

The coding of the transcripts was completed in the original language of the interview. The findings presented in this article are part of a larger ethnographic study investigating the positive impact of illness among a group of HIV-positive Puerto Rican men living in Boston.

Not all men rejected relationships completely once diagnosed. Hatala, Baack, and Parmenter identified that even when using dating sites where anonymity is possible e.

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While love is love no matter what, some prefer to date within their own race, ethnicity and even religious or political views.