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Tecumseh date unknown Image from Toronto Public Library.
InJohn Tipton secured the removal of the office to Logansport where it was closer to the concentration of Indians. From this area, the Miamis gradually moved east, settling in the principal town of Kekionga now Fort Wayne at the junction of the Maumee and St. Joseph Rivers.
In subsequent years, French missionaries and fur traders continued to mingle with the different tribes. Early reports on the factory system were positive.
To ensure proper implementation and enforcement, local Indian agencies were established in the Indian Country. The treaty process in Indiana was dormant for eight years, but d with the Treaty of Wyandots in This covered a large portion of the State of Ohio and dating affected northeastern Indiana with cession of land between the St.
Mary's and St Joseph's rivers as far north as Fort Wayne. From the period of French trading native the 17th century to the removals of the early 19th century, the life of the Native Americans was dominated by one central theme - the growing conflict of cultures.
Nevertheless, as a result Evansville increased white settlement in central and northern Indiana and the pressure by the United States, Indiana was virtually cleared of its Indian population byonly a generation after being opened to the settlement by white Easterners. From the Vincennes area, they followed the Wabash River to the north and established several villages in the vicinity of Fort Wayne. The Treaty of Vincennes with the Delawares and Piankeshaws ceded Indian lands in the extreme southern portion man the Indiana region along the Ohio River. In time, however, titles to their lands were also extinguished in the face of continued expansion of frontier settlement.
Foreign ways and customs, different values and beliefs, an increasing white population in the Trans-Appalachian region, and the white man's desire for more land were some of the problems which menaced the Indians' ly unchallenged position in the wilderness. In the early s, the Miamis were centered in the St. Joseph River region of the northwest part of Indiana extending down the Wabash River to the vicinity of Ouiatenon, Lafayette. In mid, Congress disbanded the factory system, returning the domain to the private traders. These holy men envisioned Indian tribes thoroughly imbued with French culture and patriotism and serving as an extension of the French Empire in the New World.
Debauching and defrauding the tribes threatened the peace of the frontier and the security of the white settlers as Indians retaliated against these unjust trading practices and the continued expansion of the white settlement into their lands. In each case, the negotiated settlement resulted in a major cession of Indian land, which slowly carved away the landed possessions of the long-time inhabitants of the region in return for guaranteed land to the west, perpetual annuity payments, supplies, and other sundry items.
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Later, Thomas Jefferson saw this system as a means of civilizing the tribes, of convincing them that the domestic comforts and life styles of the white "yeoman farmer" were far superior to native life. The fundamental principles pursued by the federal program and the local agencies were: protecting Indian rights to their lands; controlling the liquor traffic; providing for punishment for crimes against the Indians; and promoting education and civilization among the Indians in hope of eventual assimilation into American society.
This was done at the direction of President Thomas Jefferson who had asked Harrison to obtain title to as much land as possible, even if it meant placing the Indians in financial debt to the government through the "factory system. Here they sided actively with the French against the British and later with the British against the Americans, until peace was attained in Their settlements included Chechawkose's Village, Mesquawbuck's Village, Aubbeenaubbee's Village, and other towns scattered throughout present-day Kosciusko, Pulaski, and Fulton counties.
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From the time of the Treaty of Greenvilleby which the Indians began the first of numerous land cessions, the Shawnees led the fighting against the British and the Americans. With the appearance of more white settlers in the early s, the Potawatomies gradually ceded their lands, the most of which occurred between andand moved west of the Mississippi to the other migrating tribes.
This land, totaling someacres, was awarded to George Rogers Clark and his soldiers who served against the British in the Revolutionary War. The Treaty of Greenville, ed August 3,essentially established a boundary between the Indian and white civilizations, thereby protecting the Indian Country against incursions by white settlers. The highest concentration of Delawares could be found on the upper west fork of the White River in present day Hamilton, Madison, and Delaware Counties.
The Treaty of Grouseland granted the entire southeastern section of Indiana to the United States in return for complete assurances for Indian sovereignty in the northwestern territories. Having resided earlier in central Ohio, the Shawnees migrated into the prime hunting grounds of southern Indiana.
He exhorted his people to return to the ways of their ancestors and to shed the white ways, which led to increased racial tensions and raised suspicions on the part of the United States government. However, after the removal of the British following the War ofthere was a growing challenge to the government-operated trading program by private traders, including John Jacob Astor and his American Fur Company.
The Treaty of Fort Waynealso known as "Harrison's Purchase," concluded with the Delawares, Potawatomies, and Miamis, ceded a large segment of land above the earlier Fort Wayne cession ofand a narrow strip of land along the eastern border adjacent to the Greenville cession. Aroundthe Prophet and his brother Tecumseh founded a village at Tippecanoe which became the site of their defeat at the hands of General William Henry Harrison.
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However, problems remained in defining the extent of the Indian domain: How much land did the Indians actually claim? One continuing policy was the open trade in furs for British onlywhich allowed traders to introduce whiskey as a central commodity in the Indian trading system.
The earliest s of Indians in the Great Lakes region came in the s from the French Jesuit missionaries who were seeking to form a civilized Christian Indian nation. The president appointed superintendents to supervise all tribal business, to traders, and to regulate all white travel within the borders of their respective regions. However, by the s, after receiving permission from the Miamis and Piankeshaws, the Delawares established villages in the Indiana Territory between the Ohio and White Rivers.
Despite these laws, there were numerous instances of violations, particularly British traders who were underselling American traders and plying the Indians with strong drink. After the Peace of Paris of Septemberthe British issued a proclamation officially delineating the "Indian Country" and setting paternalistic policies regarding trade and relations with the tribes. The only visible remnant of the Indian presence were survivors of the original Indian families.
By this regulation, the Indian territory was separated into two sections, north and south, with the Ohio River as the dividing line. At the White River settlement, a Shawnee medicine man, Tenskwatawa, or known to the whites as the "Shawnee Prophet," emerged as a powerful influence among the tribes.
In later years, the tribe established villages at locations along the Mississinewa and Maumee rivers and in the Logansport area. These issues established the context in which future Indian-White relations were pursued, and set the two races on a course of continuous confrontation. The fur trade was the source of earliest contact between Indians and the white man and became the focus of federal regulatory policies by the s.
All white settlers, except those with diplomatic credentials or official business with the tribes, were banned from entering the Indian country.
Major tribes of the indiana territory
Because of their friendly disposition and their proximity to William Conner's prairie, the Delawares met the first white settlers who brought their civilization to central Indiana and participated in the early Indian-white exchanges within the territory. To counter the violations, the United States government created a system of trading houses or "factories," first advocated by George Washington as a means of supplying Indians with white men's goods. By the late s, Shawnee tribes lived in northeastern Indiana. Some Shawnees moved to east-central Indiana in at the invitation of the resident Delawares, locating themselves in the regions of the White and Mississinewa rivers.
As a result of the destruction of Indian confederacies during the Indian Wars and the growing westward expansionist desires of the American people, the Indians were gradually and systematically driven from the eastern seaboard further west. Author: David G. Vanderstel, Phd. CopyrightConner Prairie. By the s, several tribes had been relocated to the Northwest Territory and had established themselves along the major rivers and tributaries, forming ificant centers of population which confronted the westward migrating people during the years of settling the Indiana Territory.
A new law implemented in forbade trade in the Indian Country "except at certain suitable and convenient places, to be deated from time to time by the superintendents, agents, and subagents.
It was estimated that the White River Delaware ed people at the time of their removal to present-day Kansas and Oklahoma. Even then, government efforts continued to ameliorate poor conditions and trading practices with the Indians.
The Intercourse Act of July 23, mandated the licensing of anyone wishing to trade with the Indians. The line opened nearly two-thirds of the Ohio region and a sliver of southeastern Indiana to white settlement and confined the Indians to the north and west.
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The hope was to gain the Indian's friendship and to force out illegitimate traders, thereby winning the allegiance of the Indians away from other foreign powers. As nom of the woodlands, prairies, and plains, they occupied wide expanses of land where they hunted, fished, and preserved their cultural heritage.
The initial purpose and intention of negotiations between the United States and the Indian nations supposedly was to protect the tribes in the northwest territories from the incursions of rapidly expanding white settlement. By this agreement, the Potawatomies and other tribes transferred the lands in question to the federal government. Indian land ownership was acknowledged throughout the Northwest Territory. It was for that reason the government imposed boundaries and placed restrictions on travel and commercial intercourse with the natives.
The most ificant and far-reaching treaties were those negotiated in September and October of at St. Most of the Delawares left Indiana between and after ceding their lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's Ohio.
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For two generations, United States policy struggled with the status and rights of the Native Americans in the frontier regions. With the coming of the white man, however, Indian society and culture were threatened. Because of the earlier cooperation between the French and Indians, British relations with the Indians suffered until the expulsion of the French in Only through their victory in the French and Indian War did the British succeed in extending their territorial holdings into the northwest and bringing the Indian population under their authority. Only a few reservations remained in the hands of tribe, but these were eventually ceded to the government by late The Delawares, fugitives from the Chesapeake Bay area, settled in Ohio and Pennsylvania during the early eighteenth century.
By this agreement, the United States acquired the entire Indian population as wards of the federal government, which necessitated the adoption of specific policies to deal with the Indians by establishing a governmental department to oversee Indian policy. The Miamis constituted one of the largest groups, encompassing Wea and Piankeshaw tribes man well. In later years, the Shawnees at Fort Wayne, the White and Mississinewa rivers moved west, journeying to the new reserves of land in present-day Kansas and Oklahoma.
Bymost of the Miamis had left their Indiana lands and had begun their trek to their new land west of the Mississippi River. Consequently, liquor proved to be the undoing of the Indians in subsequent treaty negotiations and relations with the white man. Tribal dating were recognized as legitimate representative bodies of the Indian nations.
The Treaty of Fort Wayne was arranged by Gov. William Henry Native to resolve Indian complaints, to establish guidelines for the region, and to prepare for the eventual cession of Indian lands. An official estimate placed 1, Miamis in the Indian country during the year The Miamis played a prominent role in the numerous wars against the expanding white Evansville, but as a result of the War ofthey began to dispose of their lands through negotiated treaties with the United States. These trading posts combined diplomatic, economic, military, and humanitarian motives for improving relations between Indian and white.
Trade was not the only issue bringing Indians and whites into conflict.
These concepts appeared as federal laws the Trade and Intercourse Acts between and There were numerous treaties which directly affected the formation of the Indiana Territory and eventually the state itself. The Potawatomies originated in the Michigan Territory to the north.