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There are roughly 1. For bookworms, here are 11 women authors that represent the vast talents that come from the smallest country in continental America. Missing the mic and reflecting on how my body has taken me all over this country and Latin America to share my poetic testimonies. I give thanks and honor my body as it asks me to love and tend to it in ways I am still learning. Picture courtesy of untfinearts.
This created a coffee oligarchy made up of fourteen families.
These houses often cannot be seen from the street. Some remnants of the Pipil language remain in everyday Salvadoran Spanish. The flag consists of two blue horizontal stripes with a white stripe in the middle.
Other large cities include San Miguel in the east and Santa Ana in the west. Independence from Spain was sought by criollos who were inspired by the American and French revolutions. Since independence, the blue in the flag has symbolized support for the ruling oligarchy, while the red has symbolized support for communism or resistance.
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Ideological polarization between the two sides in the conflict has made reconciliation difficult, and the government has failed to prosecute human rights abusers, or address the social injustices. Modern urban middle-class and upper-class houses often have a small garden in front instead of in the middle, with the house and garden surrounded by a large wall that often is topped by barbed wire and glass. When that federation dissolved inEl Salvador became an independent republic. Spain's first attempt to conquer the area failed as the Pipil forced Spanish troops to retreat. Most industry is in the center, where the capital, San Salvador, is located.
Before the cultivation of coffee was introduced in the late nineteenth century, indigo was the principal export crop.
Location and Geography. The first decades of independence saw uprisings by poor mestizos and Indians to protest their impoverishment and marginalization. Judicial, electoral, and social reforms included land reform and government-financed loans for land purchases. Mountains separate the country into the southern coastal belt, the central valleys and plateaus, and the northern mountains.
Coffee grown in the mountains and cane grown on the coast provide the rural population with paid labor; in the central valleys, corn and beans are grown for private consumption and for sale.
Conservative political parties use blue in their banners; a liberal party, the Farabunda Marti National Liberation Front FMLNuses red and centralist parties use blue or green. This organizing was considered communist and subversive and became a target of government repression.
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Houses for the lower classes are often less protected, with entrances onto the street. However, salvadorian military and the oligarchy frustrated attempts at change. The insides of houses are used mainly for sleeping and storage, and families of seven or eight people may live in one or two small rooms. El Salvador "the Savior," was named by Spanish conquistadors. On 31 Decemberthe government and the FMLN ed an agreement under the auspices of the United Nations, and a cease-fire took effect in The peace accords called for military reforms including a reduction in the size of the military, a new armed forces doctrine stressing democratic values and prohibiting an internal security role, and the banning of paramilitary groups.
In the center is a coat of arms inscribed "," the year of independence. Emergence of the Nation. Legal and illegal emigration has continued at a high rate since the end of the civil war in Linguistic Affiliation. Indians were at the bottom of the social hierarchy in dating times and subject to massacre and exploitation well into the twentieth century. When the Central American provinces were ed with Mexico inEl Salvador insisted on the autonomy of the Central American countries. Almost all residents speak Spanish, which was brought in by the conquistadors.
The encomienda system obliged Indians to work for the Spanish in order to pay a large tax. Inthe archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, who had become a forceful critic of military oppression, was assassinated while saying Mass. Before the Spanish conquest, the area was inhabited girl the Pipil Indians. They gained support from the Indians and landless peasants by promising to end the abuses committed by landowners.
This led many people in the base Christian communities and political organizations to turn to armed resistance. Much of that repression was in response to the political organization of the people in the s and s as workers, peasants, women, students, and shanty town dwellers developed organizations to demand political and economic rights. Most of the area was inhabited by the Pipil. Before the Spanish conquest, Pueblo area that is now El Salvador was made up of two large Indian states and several principalities. This type of architecture was used in the s for security reasons.
Many political activists felt that "legal" political organizing would not lead to political change and began organizing the clandestine guerrilla units that formed the nucleus of the FMLN in By the FMLN was perceived as a threat by the military dictatorship. Rural peasants and church workers formed Christian "base communities" and agricultural cooperatives in the s and s.
Inan Indian rebellion of indigo sowers and cutters led by Anastasio Aquino demanded distribution of land to the poor and the just application of the penal laws, the only laws applied to the poor. Over a million persons have migrated, starting in the early s during a civil war. During the civil war, both sides sang the national hymn. A group of young officers staged a military coup and formed a cabinet consisting of civilians from a wide spectrum of political parties.
The mestizos were people of mixed Spanish El Salvador and indigenous descent, who had some rights but could not hold private property. Many Salvadorans, especially rural peasants, do not trust the nation's political leaders. Salvadoran national identity is comprised of a mix of indigenous and Spanish influences expressed in food, language, customs, and religious beliefs.
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Urban houses built during the colonial period typically have outdoor space in the middle of the house, making family life more private. Progressive priests and nuns formed Bible study groups in which peasants reflected on local conditions in light of biblical texts. The indigenous peoples were exploited and mistreated. Under them were the criollosSpaniards born in the Americas. Guanaco, a type of bird, is a slightly derogative nickname used by other Central Americans and some Salvadorans. After the revolution, Indians and peasants remained impoverished and largely without land or legal rights.
Those who survived la Matanza "the massacre" hid their Indian identity by changing their dress and speaking only Spanish. Estimates of deaths in the twelve years of civil war have reached 80, including twelve thousand civilians killed in Inmutilation killings, particularly decapitations, of adults Motor vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians crowd a busy street in downtown San Salvador. At the top of the colonial hierarchy were the PeninsularesSpaniards born in Spain. International coverage of the offensive increased the pressure for a negotiated settlement to the conflict.
The civil war in the s led to a huge population upheaval, with up to 40 percent of the population relocating and close to 20 percent leaving the country. Food in Daily Life.
Thousands of rural peasants were displaced as new laws incorporated their lands into large "modern" coffee plantations where peasants were forced to work for very low wages. Five revolutionary armies ed together to form the FMLN. The rebellion was crushed by the government. El Salvador is a country of 8, square miles 21, square kilometers in Central America, between Guatemala and Honduras. In the population was estimated to be 5,, making El Salvador one of the most densely populated countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The economy is still controlled by a wealthy landowning caste 1 percent of the population still owns 40 percent of the arable land. A new spirit of activism emerged within the Catholic Church.
These regions have created slight cultural variations because of the different crops grown in each one. Salvadorans in the United States often have plaques that contain the flag, as a symbol of national pride. Guatemalan troops that were sent to enforce the union were forced out in June However, in February of that year, a revolution in Mexico ousted the emperor, and a new congress granted independence to the Central American provinces. Many of the poorest families have houses made of discarded materials such as cardboard and sheet metal.
Rural houses are typically made of adobe, with a large front porch corredor where people spend most of their time when at home. National Identity. Three more juntas followed, but each was incapable of implementing reform and stopping atrocities.
Ninety-seven percent of the population in El Salvador is now "mestizo. Ethnic Relations. Inthe district fell under the control of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, a colony of Spain, which retained authority until independence in During the colonial period, the Spaniards replaced the communal property of the indigenous population with a system of private property.