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Shreveport-Bossier City's Indian community began taking root in the s. Today, approximately Indian families live in the area. Most adults in the community were born and raised in India. Many in this first generation are medical doctors, while a small percentage work in the hospitality industry. Over time, three separate Indian cultural entities have taken shape in the area, each serving specific needs and offering particular resources to the community.


In the Caddo moved down the Red River near Caddo Lake, which placed them about one hundred and twenty miles from the present town of Natchitoches. Whether the army of De Soto came in contact with them is unknown, but the companions of La Salle, after his death, traversed their country, and Douay speaks of them as a powerful nation. They are gradually wasting away; the small pox has been their great destroyer. He says:.

They had a strong attachment to the French, as is shown by the fact that they ed them in war against the Natchez Indians. They planted fields around their villages in corn, pumpkins and vegetables that furnished their staple food. The French inhabitants have great respect for this nation, and a of very decent families have a mixture of their blood in them. Joutel gives an interesting of the agriculture of the Caddo tribes in his day.

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Often in order to maintain control of the natives, the nations involved in controversy made a complete change in their policy and these policies had a decided influence on the Indians. The Adai who were left in their old homes at Adayes, ed about one hundred in According to John Sibley's report in there were only twenty men of them remaining, but more women than men.

Because of the strategic importance of the Caddo country, each of the different nations under whose jurisdiction the natives lived, employed certain methods in dealing with them.

The Cadodacho real Caddo, Caddo properseem to have lived as a tribe on Red River of Louisiana from time immemorial. Their confederacy consisted of several tribes or divisions, claiming as their original territory the whole of lower Red River and adjacent country in Louisiana, eastern Texas, and Southern Arkansas.

The seemingly mispelled words and strange useage are from the original text "as is" and are not changed to modern spelling and usege. In their influence extended over the Yatasi, Nandakoes, Nebadaches, Inies, or Tackies, Nacogdoches, Keychies, Adai, and Natchitoches, who looked up to them as their father, visited and intermarried among them, and ed them in all their wars. In a study of the history of Caddo Parish, Louisiana, an interest was developed in the Caddo Indians who were aborigines of the parish, and since no adequate study had been made of these interesting people it became my purpose to give an of them from the time when first met by the white man until about The region inhabited by the Caddo Indians when they were first met by the whites, soon became the disputed territory between France and Spain, and later between Spain and the United States.

The population rapidly declined as a result of the wars in which they were forced to take part, and the introduction of new diseases, particularly small pox and measles. The Caddoes had a very convenient way of communicating with each other and with other tribes, through the medium of a language.

Sibley says:. The Caddoes were cultivators of the soil. At a later date the Yatasi must have returned to their old village site.

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A part of the tribe moved near Natchitoches, while others migrated up the river to the Kadohadacho and to the Nanatsoho and the Nasoni. They worked hard in their fields when the weather was good, but when the cold rain fell and the north wind blew they would not come out of their houses. Of the ancient Yattassees Yatasi there were then but eight men and twenty-five women remaining. All the tribes of the Confederacy spoke the Caddoan language.

They also owned horses, cattle, hogs, and poultry. However, the language of the Adai differed from all the others and was very difficult to speak. The first historical mention of the Adai was made by Cabeca de Vaca, who in his "Naufragios", referring to his stay in Texas, aboutcalled them Atayos.

The Yatasi tribe is first spoken of by Tonti, who states that in their village was on the Red River, northwest of Natchitoches.

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They have a traditionary tale, which not only the Caddoes, but half a dozen other smaller nations believe in, who claim the honor of being descendants of the same family; they say, when all the world was drowning by a flood, that inundated the whole country, the Great Spirit placed on an eminence, near this lake, one family of Caddoques, who alone were saved; from that family all the Indians originated. Yet they were not idle; they sat around the fire employing themselves with handiwork.

They still preserve their Indian dress and habits; raise corn and those vegetables common in their neighborhood. I noticed a very good method in this nation Ceniswhich is to form a sort of assembly when they want to turn the soil in the fields belonging to a certain cabin, an assembly in which may be found more than a hundred per sons of both sexes. One writer states that during their early history they must have ed about ten thousand.

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On the Angelina and upper Neches rivers, lived the Hasinai, that comprised some ten or more tribes, of which the best known were the Hainai, Nacogdoche, Nabedache, Nasoni, and Nadaco. Their language differed from that of all other tribes and was very difficult to speak, or understand. Their tribal was made "by passing the extended index finger, pointing under the nose from right to left.

Among those who have given me help in the preparation of this work I wish to thank Miss Harriet Smither, archivist of the Texas State Library, and I am especially grateful to Mrs. Mattie Austin Hatcher and Miss Winnie Allen of the University of Texas Library staff for their kindness and helpfulness in making avail able the materials of the library. In the Assonites Nassonitesand Natsoos, dwelt along Red River, often on both sides of the channel about one hundred and fifty leagues northwest of Natchitoches.

Their original language is the same as the Yattassee, but speak Caddo, and most of them French.

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According to a report from the Indian agent at Natchitoches made in the tribes of the Caddo confederacy at that time ed approximately six hundred, not including children. Mention was also made of them by Iberville, Joutel, and some other early French explorers. There is now remaining of the Natchitoches but twelve men and nineteen women, who live in a village about twenty five miles by land above the town which bears their name near the lake, called by the French Lac de Muire.

It appears from the evidence at hand that during the eighteenth century two confederacies existed instead of one as indicated by Mooney. According to Sibley's report they settled in a large prairie, about half way between the Caddoques Cadodacho and the Natchitoches, surrounded by a settlement of French families.

No doubt this estimate included both the Caddo and Hasinai Confederacies.

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According to tribal traditions the lower Red River of Louisiana was their original home, from which they migrated west and northwest. Of the names mentioned by the different writers nine tribes named by Mooney in his list are found under varying forms in the lists ofby Iberville, andby Linares.

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A more recent study by Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, of the University of California, reveals the fact that there were two confederacies of the Caddoan linguistic stock inhabiting northeastern Texas, in stead of one, as indicated by Mooney and Fletcher. This was also the site of the Spanish Mission, Los Adaes. Chevalier de Tonti, a French explorer, called them Cadadoquis, M. The of tribes formerly included in the Caddo Confederacy can not now be determined.

They claim but a small tract of land, on which they live, and I am informed, have the same rights to it from Government, that other inhabitants in their neighborhood have. In Dr. John Sibley, Indian agent at Natchitoches, in a report to Thomas Jefferson relative to the Indian tribes in his territory said:. Caddo is a popular name contracted from Kadohadacho, the name of the Caddo proper, as used by themselves. Note: Because of the ancient origin of this text, certain words may appear mispelled; They are not; and some usage may appear awkward.

The Cadodacho was the leading tribe in the Caddo Confederacy. They lived near the Cadodacho and were related to them. Only a small of the Caddo survive, and the memory of much of their tribal organization is lost.

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In there was a partial emigration of the Adai, ing fourteen families, to a site south of San Antonio de Pejar, southwest Texas, where it is thought they blended with the surrounding Indian population. The Adai village was located on a small creek near the present town of Robeline, Louisiana, about twenty-five miles west of Natchitoches.

It is extended by the whites to include the Confederacy. The available in formation came largely through reports made by the French and Spanish who first came in contact with these Indians. This nation wielded a great influence over many of the tribes belonging to the Southern Caddoan family. To Dr. William Campbell Binkley of Vanderbilt University, I wish to express my gratitude for his scholarly advice and helpful criticisms during the development of this study. In this paper the Yatasi, Adai, Natchitoches, Natsoos, Nassonites, and Cadodacho will be considered as the tribes that belonged to the Caddo Confederacy.

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It was then that they made their bows and arrows, their necessary clothing and tools with which to work. Most of the early writers, and even many of the later ones used different names for the Kadohadacho.

In the first part of the eighteenth century, St. Denis invited them to locate near Natchitoches, in order that they might be protected from the attacks of the Chickasaw who were then waging war along Red River. The Caddo Indians are the principal southern representatives of the great Caddoan linguistic family, which include the Wichita, Kichai, Pawnee, and Arikara.

Penicaut reported in that the Caddo lived on the Sabloniere, or Red River, about one hundred and seventy leagues above Natchitoches, which places them a little above the big bend of Red River near the present towns of Fulton, Arkansas, and Texarkana. The women worked making mats out of reeds and leaves, and pots and bowls out of clay.

They lived on rich land, raised plenty of corn, beans, pumpkins, and tobacco. It is impossible at the present time to identify all the tribes that belonged to the Caddo Confederacy, but a sketch dating the best known tribes that inhabited the Louisiana territory will be under taken.

Bolton says that the Caddo whose culture was similar to the Hasinai, lived along both banks of the Red River from the lower Natchitoches tribe, in the vicinity of the present Louisiana city of that name, to the Natsoos and Nassonites tribes, for the great bend of the Red River in southwestern Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. From the outset the Caddoes were border Indians, therefore their relations with the Europeans and later with the Americans were somewhat different from that of tribes inhabiting undisputed territory.

Their original language differed from any others, but all of them spoke Caddo. Inasmuch as the native background as expressed in customs, traditions, and location affected the general relations of the natives with the white man it seems necessary to put together such in formation as is available concerning the tribes Shreveport the period be fore the white man came into their territory. It is impossible to determine with exactness the population of the Caddo during the early period, for no record of a census is available until after the Louisiana Purchase in Fletcher says that indians the coming of the French and Spanish they were no doubt a thrifty and numerous people.

They formerly lived on the south bank of the river, by the course of the river miles higher up, at a beautiful prairie, which has a clear lake of good water in the middle of it, surrounded by a pleasant and fertile country, which had been the residence of their ancestors for time immemorial.

They all spoke Caddo, and most of them spoke French also. They would not allow idleness; there was always something to be done, and those who would not work were punished.

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This is an index of names only.