- I'm 41 years old
- Iris color:
- Warm dark
- I understand:
- What is my favourite drink:
Strategies with this rating are most likely to make a difference. These strategies have been tested in many robust studies with consistently positive. Scientifically Supported: Strategies with this rating are most likely to make a difference.
Inthe majority of provincial and district hospitals and clinics virtually stopped operations as a result of the crumbling social infrastructure. A random selection procedure was employed to sample households for study recruitment.
Concurrent with this economic free-fall, Zimbabwe's once robust health system has deteriorated with chronic shortages of public health personnel and essential drugs. This data was used to create summary tables of brand equity across the three user groups, and also to conduct logistical regressions on different perceptions of brand equity, controlling for potential socio-demographic confounders.
Over time, brand equity would be expected to influence behavior and as such is a potentially useful component in segmentation analyses and an essential component of outcome evaluations [ 14 ]. Some former users may using condoms through more effective marketing.
Brand equity is what the brand stands for in the hearts and minds of consumers, and as a metric it captures their identification with and intentions to purchase, use, and engage with the brand [ 1011 ]. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy inthe price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken.
Stata version 11 College Station, TX was used for all statistical analyses. In this respect, brands are very much like reputations - they precede the individual or organization and shape how the world responds. Table 1 provides a descriptive statistics for brand equity and market factors in the sample. PSI has used this approach with many of its socially marketed brands [ 15 ]. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. Moreover, an overly low price may reduce consumers' free of value in the condom product, harming the brand and efforts to market it and increased utilization of condoms overall [ 7 ].
Age was self-reported in years. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Their switching would help to grow the total market as they would then be paying for condoms and would be candidates to eventually adopt commercially marketed brands.
These thresholds for factor inclusion were chosen following the widely used Comrey and Lee criteria [ 16 ]. The first stage involved selection of Enumeration areas EAs from a list of EAs from the Zimbabwe national population census. Even at higher price point than current 10 cents, many users may Point willing to condoms for condoms given effective brand promotion and management and consequent higher levels of brand equity.
The IDIs explored the same topics examined in the survey, but in the form of open-ended questions with probes and opportunities to explore the participants' reasons for their indicated level of brand equity and other measures.
Education was self-reported by category with 'completed university' as highest. Study also inform decisions about how to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by establishing appropriate prices for socially marketed products that would permit commercial brands to enter the market in the future.
Brands have been defined as "a set of associations linked to a name, mark, or symbol associated with a product or service" [ 9 ]. The following are the brand equity scales. The IDI form included the same topics as the questionnaire. Additionally, lifestyle factors such as multiple concurrent partnerships are a major focus of HIV prevention programming in Zimbabwe [ 2 ].
We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms.
The sample was chosen based on experience in similar studies. The lowest alpha observed was. Descriptive analyses on socio-demographic and brand pricing points were performed to assess overall brand dynamics.
Marriage status included all potential co- habitation status. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. Using brand pricing point data, additional logistical regression analyses were performed to assess brand equity perceptions among those willing to pay more or less for either Protector Plus or public sector condoms.
Socio-economic status SES was measured by a list of household amenities which in combination would be indicative of wealth relative to the local economy. He owns and listens to the radio and rides a kombi shared taxi to and from his trading place in the city centre. Given that most purchase decisions are made within the market context of various brand choices e. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis CFA for the brand equity scales. Brand equity represents the value that the brand holds for consumers.
As observed in studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. This study suggests that the answer is yes.
For the quantitative arm of the study a two stage cluster sampling strategy was utilized to select eligible participants. These users have lower perceptions of popularity of public sector brand and higher associations with personality of the public sector. The brand therefore has a very important role in helping destigmatize condom use and to making it something "everybody is doing" and "everyone is talking about" because of its different presentations and characteristics.
Public sector users are willing to pay more given higher loyalty, quality, and value. In the selected households, a Kish grid was used to select one participant in cases where the of eligible respondents was more than one. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use.
It is a primary driver of product and behavioral choice, especially for health commodities with little functional attribute differentiation e.
We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey. The questionnaire was programmed on a personal digital assistant PDA device and the interviewer entered responses directly into the PDA data form. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Metrics details. Selection of EAs was dependent upon the size of the EA. A list of households for each of the selected EAs was compiled and became the basis for selecting households. Mike dreams of having a steady girlfriend and providing for his extended family's material needs.
Thus the ificance of brands is in the associations they represent, and the resulting behavior buying a product, engaging in a behavior, maintaining a relationship with the brand they can engender. Social marketing interventions develop, promote and create awareness about a brand that may refer to a behavior, campaign or product. Odds ratios above 1 indicate that respondents are willing to pay higher prices given higher brand equity in factor indicated in that table row. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional free of brand peceptions brand equityand price in condom use behavior.
In an effort to halt this slide, in February the government liberalized trade and introduced the US dollar as the official hard currency; the South African Rand Point Botswana Pula are also prevalent forms of legal tender [ 4 ]. After assembling suitable factors, scale variables were created to represent each brand equity category. International Journal of Epidemiology. Peer Review reports. Immediately following this price increase, as with price increases, there was an condoms steep decline in sales, from over 5 million units sold in October to just over 2 million units sold in November An in-depth audience profile was created to provide an illustrative description of condoms target audience to inform the intervention's communications strategy and activity planning.
Additionally, the study included a qualitative study arm in which 30 Zimbabwean men meeting the same recruitment criteria and not included in the quantitative study arm were interviewed in an open-ended, in-depth interview IDI format. Brand equity has been ly studied as a mediator, or mechanism by which marketing efforts promote product use and behavior change [ 13 ].
have been summarized at the factor level for brand equity factors representing the factor score for each factor. Each item was asked on a 4-point scale from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree' with a 'don't know' option. We evaluate the effect of the price increase and examine the relationship between product price points and brand equity. Young adults and women are hardest hit by the epidemic. A total of 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. Thus price does not appear to be a major barrier to condom use in Zimbabwe. of the qualitative arm will be reported in a future publication.
An 'archetype' of the targeted condom consumer was developed as a guide to the brand marketing. We examined the relationship between brand equity and willingness to pay. Brand equity consists of multiple dimensions, including perceptions of quality, loyalty and perceived value, which, when measured, can guide decision-making early in an intervention particularly in evaluating initial promotional efforts. Despite the severity of the epidemic, prevalence rates in Zimbabwe have shown s of decline, from Peter Piot, head of UNAIDS at the time, said that in Zimbabwe, "The declines in HIV rates have been due to changes in behavior, including increased use of condoms, people delaying the first time they have sexual intercourse, and people having fewer sexual partners" [ 5 ].
After providing informed consent individually, participants completed a face-to-face interview following a structured, item questionnaire. The multivariable regression analyses reported below included 4 co-variates: age, education, marriage status, and socio-economic free. The questionnaire took approximately 20 minutes to administer and a total of individual interviews were completed for this study. In each analysis, all factor loadings and Chronbach alpha statistics were high and above threshold for acceptable scales [ 16 Point.
Reproductive Health volume 8Article : 29 Cite this article. Continued brand research is needed to evaluate changes in brand equity. Respondents indicated they were generally willing to pay higher price for brand given higher brand equity.
Free condom locations
We conducted interviews with Zimbabwean men in November and December Study participants were recruited by simple random selection and were a nationally representative sample of Zimbabwean men aged residing in rural and urban areas. One long-term goal of the Total Market Approach is to create opportunities for private sector products to replace socially marketed and freely Point condoms over time as economic conditions and consumer demand allow [ 17 ]. Rather it is perceptions of the condom product, as measured by brand equity, that appear to be a greater driver of preferences for condom use.
He worries about HIV infection so he openly discusses condoms with his friends and they encourage each other to use condoms although Mike does not use condoms consistently with condoms partner. Moreover, inconsistent condom users are more likely to become consistent users of Protector Plus male condoms if they know that they are able to use condoms correctly and are able free talk to every partner about the importance of using condoms. He drinks opaque beer and occasionally clear beer whilst hanging out with his numerous friends at the shopping centre during weekends.
We also asked about awareness of brands available for sale and free in Zimbabwe. Trained interviewers screened participants following a study recruitment criteria. Table 4 shows of an ordered multivariable logistic regression model in which all members of the sample are included.
We developed and fielded an interviewer-administered, item questionnaire that included items on participant socio-demographics, media use, exposure to condom brand marketing, brand equity, willingness to pay for condoms, and use of specific condom brands.
While this research suggests that the total market for condoms in Zimbabwe could be increased through switching, the question remains whether users' income and economic conditions in the country would support an increased percentage of sold condoms.